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A term from shoe manufacturing: Grading means the transition of a shoe designed in size 42 to all other shoe sizes. A CAD computer programme enlarges or reduces the original design into larger or smaller sizes.


The heel is the part of the shoe at the end of the foot. The origins of shoe heels are unknown but it probably originates in the Far East and the Orient where heels were used by horse-riding tribes such as the Mongolians to keep their feet from slipping off the stirrups while riding. Heels help the roll motion while walking and are there to relax the longitudinal vaults of the foot. Therefore, for gentlemen’s shoes a heel height of 2.5 cm is considered ideal. Ladies shoes may somewhat differ from that…

Heel mantle

The heel mantle is the side pieces and back piece of the heel. It is generally dyed black or has the colour of the upper leather.

Heel patches

Heel patches are three to four pieces of sole leather which are cut in the shape of the heel. They are glued together and form the heel.

High Heels

High heels are shoes or boots with a very tall heel. The front part of the shoe often has a plateau making the person wearing the shoe appear much taller.

Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution had a big impact on shoe manufacturing. Shoes could suddenly be produced in large numbers and prices sank drastically. Nevertheless, shoes stayed unaffordable for the poor whereas the middle class could soon afford to buy shoes.


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