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Outer sole

The outer sole is the sole at the very bottom of the shoe that has road contact. It is also known as walking sole.


An Oxford is an elegant shoe model with closed binding. The combination of fastening and shape ensures a good match of lasts and feet.

Patent leather

Patent leathers are real or synthetic leathers with a special varnish. They are smooth, embossed, crumpled or with visible metallic pigments under the varnish. In order to preserve elasticity, the use of special care products is necessary.


Peeptoes are toeless pumps and represent an elegant alternative to sandals.


The term pelt derives from the tanner guild and describes skins and furs that have been treated by water but have not yet been tanned.


Loafers are also called slippers and are light summer shoes without binding. You can just slip into a loafer – the use of a shoehorn is advised.

Permanent flexing performance

In order to test the permanent flexing performance of a shoe, a walking sole is lacerated with three pricks. Then it is bent 30.000 times at an angle of 90 degrees. According to DIN EN 344 the resulting fissures may not exceed a length of 4 mm.


Pumps are classic ladies’ shoes with comparatively high heels. In the US the word pumps has the same meaning as in Germany and France but in other languages pumps means sports shoes or trainers.

Rough leather

The surface of rough leather is unlike smooth leather heavily sanded. A distinction is drawn between rough leathers that are worked on the outside (Nubuck leathers) and rough leathers worked on the inside (Velours). Nubuck is smooth and velvet-like because the finely structured outside is sanded. Velours leather is coarser because the coarser fibre layer on the inside is sanded.